Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Do Tregs inhibit or promote allergic responses? How to avoid data misinterpretation

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the most essential component of the immune system. No other cell population, taken singularly, have such an indispensable role in the proper functioning of the immune system. Tregs are known to inhibit inappropriate immune response against self-antigens, commensal microbiota or even nonself pathogens.  I strongly believe that data are very clear about it.

So, when I see a well-designed research paper showing something contrary I immediately want to understand its details. Take this new paper from The Journal of Clinical Investigation (JCI) as an example. It claims and data its provided is pretty solid that removal of a subset of Tregs called T follicular regulatory cells (Tfr) from the immune system in Foxp3-cre Bcl6-fl/fl mice paradoxically reduces, rather than increases, peanut-specific IgE responses. 



And if you think maybe their knockout mice are some kind of weirdos, not really. Their model also shows that total IgE is increasing as expected. So, the system the authors are using is within acceptable norms.   


The authors then went on to show that IL-10 derived from Tfr cells are important for promoting peanut allergy-producing IgE production. 

These results are totally against the whole paradigm about the role of Tfr cells and even IL-10 because the authors speculating that we need to block IL-10 to reduce peanut allergy rather than inject IL-10 to inhibit it, as everyone thinks currently (IL-10 is lesser understood cytokine but it is generally accepted as an immunosuppressant.)

So, how to interpret these results? Basically, what's going on? Is there a way to interpret these results within the confines of the established concept?

I think there is at least one possibility the authors did not consider in their discussions. Here the authors are looking for primary adaptive T/B cell response to a novel antigen, peanut antigen in this case. In this scenario, peanut allergy promoting IgE response is clearly reduced without Tfr cells. But at the same time, the level of total IgE (representing unknown antigen-specific IgE responses) has increased. We could say that total IgE is derived from an already established memory T/B system rather than from primary immune response as peanut IgE is. This memory T/B/plasma cells then boost total IgE levels when the brakes applied by Tfrs are removed. But the same principle does not apply for primary T/B response to peanut allergen. Why is that? It is possible that the absence of Tfr specifically messes up with primary T/B cooperation. It is not a direct effect but rather indirect due to the activation of other components of the immune system when brakes are removed. So, primary T/B responses will be undermined by a lack of Tfr cells and it would appear if Tfr cells were promoting primary IgE responses and their absence reduced IgE production. 

The correct interpretation is essential, especially when applied to human clinical data. In humans, peanut allergy IgE is already established as a memory system by the time the allergic individuals are examined by a doctor. In that case, manipulation of the Tfr or IL-10 system the way the authors envisaged could be detrimental rather than beneficial.     

posted by David Usharauli      


2 comments:


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  2. It is no secret that I have a very deep and personal relationship with God. I have pushed and resisted that relationship this past year through all the bullshit I have had to go through living with Herpes but once again, God is bigger than my stubbornness and broke through that outbreak cold sore and all I had Genital Herpes. For me personally, hearing over and over how I am not good enough has really invaded my mind in the worst way possible. I completely shut down and I was just waking up like is this how life going to end this temporary herpes outbreak “fuck everybody with herpes if you know what I mean” but let's be honest here...
    It is a cowardly to say no to herbal medicine. It is fear based. And it is dishonest to what my heart wants. Don't build a wall around yourself because you are afraid of herbals made or taking a bold step especially when it's come to health issues and getting cure. So many young men/ women tell me over and over that Dr Itua is going to scam me but I give him a try to today I feel like no one will ever convince me about herbal medicine I accept Dr Itua herbal medicine because it's cure my herpes just two weeks of drinking it and i have been living for a year and months now I experience outbreak no more, You can contact him if you need his herbal medicine for any such diseases like, Herpes, Schizophrenia,Cancer,Scoliosis,Fibromyalgia,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.Fatal Familial Insomnia Factor V Leiden Mutation ,Epilepsy Dupuytren's disease,Desmoplastic,Diabetes ,Coeliac disease,Creutzfeldt–Jakob,Dairies,Lyme Disease,Epilepsy, ,ALS,Hepatitis,Copd,Parkinson disease.Genetic disease,Fibrodysplasia disease,Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Men/Woman infertility, bowel disease ,Huntington's disease ,Diabetes,Fibroid. disease,Lupus,Lipoid Storage diseases( Gauchers disease),Polycystic Disease.,Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Ataxia,Cirrhosis of Liver,Arthritis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Alzheimer's disease,Adrenocortical carcinoma.Asthma,Allergic,HIV, Epilepsy, Infertility, Love Spell,. Email..drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com then what's app.+2348149277967.... My advice to any sick men/women out there is simple... Be Always an open book. Be gut wrenching honest about yourself, your situation, and what you are all about. Don't hold anything back. Holding back will get you nowhere...maybe a one way ticket to lonelyville and that is NOT somewhere you want to be. So my final truth...and I'm just starting to grasp this one..

    ReplyDelete