Thursday, March 15, 2018

Reduced CTLA-4 signaling predisposes to Th2 driven gastric tumorigenesis

Anti-CTLA4 antibodies such as Yervoy, has been used in clinical practice to treat solid tumors. It supposed to work either by augmenting and revitalizing effector T cells function directly or indirectly through temporal silencing of inhibitory Foxp3+ Treg population or both. However, new study from Journal of Experimental Medicine showed that at least in [genetically predisposed] mice reduced CTLA-4 signaling by itself could cause Th2 driven tumorigenic transformation of stomach epithelial tissue.

For this study the authors created transgenic CTLA4 shRNA knockdown (CTLA4KD) mice on the BALB/c × C57BL/6 (B6) mixed genetic background. This they did because it appears that BALB/c but not B6 mice were susceptible developing gastric tumors in this model. CTLA4KD mice showed gastric epithelial transformation by 20w of age. Similarly, month long treatment of newborn BALB/c mice with anti-CTLA4 antibody also led to gastric epithelial transformation.

This tumorigenic transformation was CD4 T cell dependent and effector T cells from CTLA4KD but not from WT mice could mediate it. It indicated that changes in effector T cell composition and functionality were driving de novo inflammatory tumorigenesis.

Interestingly, gastric epithelial transformation were happening even in germ-free CTLA4KD mice lacking microbiota. However, since these mice also harbor increased numbers of inflammatory T cells, in all subsets analyzed such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and independent of microbiota it could indicate that T cells could be responding to antigens from food or environment.

Finally, elimination of canonical T helper cytokines showed that surprisingly neither IFN-γ nor IL-17 but IL-4 deficiency could abolish gastric epithelial transformation under conditions of reduced CTLA-4 activity.

In summary, this study suggests that inherited or clinically-induced reduction of CTLA-4 signaling in predisposed individuals could paradoxically lead to inflammatory tumorigenesis driven by type II immunity.

posted by David Usharauli

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